Materials & wire size

High Quality Spring Wire Materials
Supplying Service Conscious Customers Coast-to-Coast

General. High-carbon spring steels are the most commonly used of all springs materials. Try to use these materials in preference to others because that are least expensive, readily available, easily worked, and most popular. These materials are not satisfactory for high or low temperatures or for shock or impact loading.

High-Carbon Spring Wire

Material
Music Wire
ASTM A 228
Hard Drawn
ASTM A 277
High Tensile Hard Drawn
ASTM A 679
Oil Tempered
ASTM A 229
Carbon Valve
ASTM A 230
Nominal Analysis
C–.70 – 1.00% Mn–.20 – 60%
C–.45 – .85% Mn–.60 – 1.30%
C– .65 – 1.00% Mn– .20 – 1.30%
C– .55 – .85% Mn– .60 – 1.20%
C– .60 – .75% Mn– .60 – .90%
Minimum Tensile Strength
230-3999
CLI 147-283 CLII 171-324
238-350
CLI 165-293 CLII 191-324
215-240
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106
30
30
30
30
30
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile
45
40
45
45
45
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
Maximum Temp. °F
250
250
250
250
250
Maximum Temp. °C
121
121
121
121
121
Rockwell Hardness
C41-60
C31-52
C41-60
C42-55
C45-49
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties
Cold drawn. High and uniform tensile. High quality springs and wire forms.
Cold drawn. Average stress applications. Lower cost springs and wire forms.
Cold drawn. Higher quality springs and wire forms.
Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication, General purpose spring wire.
Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Suitable for cyclic applications.

General. The alloy spring steels have a definite place in the field of spring materials, particularly for conditions involving high stress and for applications where shock or impact loading occurs. Alloy spring steels also can withstand higher and lower temperatures than the high-carbon steels and are obtainable in either the annealed or pre tempered conditions. Note: These materials are not regularly stocked in a wide variety of sizes.

General. The use of stainless spring steels has increased considerably in recent years. Several new compositions are now available to withstand corrosion. All of these materials can be used for high temperatures up to 650°F.

Alloy Steel Wire

Material
Chrome Vanadium ASTM A 231
Chrome Silicon ASTM A 401
Nominal Analysis
C — .48 – .53% Cr — .80 – 1.10% V — .15 min%
C — .51 – .59% Cr — .60 – .80% Si — 1.20 – 1.60%
Minimum Tensile Strength
190-300
235-300
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106
30
30
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile
45
45
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106
11.5
11.5
Maximum Temp. °F
425
475
Maximum Temp. °C
218.5
246
Rockwell Hardness
C41-55
C48-55
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties
Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature.
Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature.

Stainless Steel Wire

Material
AISI 302/304 ASTM A 313
AISI 316 ASTM A 313
17-7 PH ASTM A 313 (631)
Nominal Analysis
Cr — 17.0 – 19.0% Ni — 8.0 – 10.0%
Cr — 16.0 – 18.0% Ni — 10.0 – 14.0% Mo — 2.0 – 3.0%
Cr — 16.0 – 18.0% Ni — 6.5 – 7.5% Al — .75 – 1.5%
Minimum Tensile Strength
235-300
110-245
Cond CH 235-335
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106
28
28
29.5
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile
30-40
40
45
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106
11.5
11.5
11.5
Maximum Temp. °F
550
550
650
Maximum Temp. °C
288
288
343
Rockwell Hardness
C35-45
C35-45
C38-57
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties
Cold drawn, general purpose, corrosion and heat resistant. Magnetic in spring temper.
Cold drawn. Heat resistant and better corrosion resistance than 302. Magnetic in spring temper.
Cold drawn & precipitation hardened after fabrication. High strength and general purpose corrosion resistance. Slightly magnetic in spring temper.
General. Copper-base alloys are important spring materials becaus of thier good electrical properties combined with their excellent resistance to corrosion. Although these materials are more expensive than the high-carbon and the alloy steels, they nevertheless are frequently used in electrical components and in subzero temperatures.
 
All copper-base alloys are drawn to the American wire gage (same as Brown and Sharpe gage) and are nonmagnetic.

Non-Ferrous Alloy Wire

Material
Phosphor Bronze Grade A ASTM B 159
Beryllium Copper ASTM B 197
Monel 400 AMS 7233
Monel K 500 QQ-N-286
Nominal Analysis
Cu — 94.0% – 96.0% Sn — 4.0 – 6.0%
Cu — 98.0% Be — 2.0%
Ni — 66.0% Cu — 31.5% C/Fe
Ni — 65.0% Cu — 29.5% C/Fe/A/Ti
Minimum Tensile Strength
105-145
150-230
145-180
160-200
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106
15
18.5
26
28
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile
40
45
40
40
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106
6.25
7.0
9.5
9.5
Maximum Temp. °F
200
400
450
550
Maximum Temp. °C
93.8
204
232
288
Rockwell Hardness
B98-104
C35-42
C23-32
C23-35
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties
Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity.
Cold drawn and may be mill hardened before fabricataion. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. High physicals.
Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.
Excellent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

General. Nickel-based alloys are especially useful spring materials to combat corrosion and to withstand both elevated and below-zero temperature application. Their nonmagnetic characteristic is important for such devices as gyroscopes, chronoscopes, and indicating instruments. These materials have high electrical resistance and should not be used for conductors of electrical current.

High-Temperature Alloy Wire

Material
A 286 Alloy
Inconel 600 QQ-W-390
Inconel 718
Inconel X-750 AMS 5698, 5699
Nominal Analysis
Ni — 26.0% Cr — 15.0% Fe — 53.0%
Ni — 76.0% Cr — 15.8% Fe — 7.2%
Ni — 52.5% Cr — 18.6% Fe — 18.5%
Inconel X-750 AMS 5698, 5699
Minimum Tensile Strength
160-200
170-230
210-2500
No.IT 155 min. Spg.T 190-230
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106
29
31
29
31
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile
35
40
40
40
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106
10.4
11.0
11.2
12
Maximum Temp. °F
950
700
1100
750-1100
Maximum Temp. °C
510
371
593
399-593
Rockwell Hardness
B98-104
C35-42
C23-32
C23-35
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties
Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity.
Cold drawn and may be mill hardened before fabricataion. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. High physicals.
Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.
Excellent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

Flat High-Carbon Spring Steels

Although these materials are frequently plated, sections under 0.015″ having carbon content over 0.85 with hardness over Rockwell C47 are highly susceptible to hydrogen-embrittlement even though special plating and beating operations are employed. (Properties are not displayed).