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Materials

High Quality Spring Wire Materials

Supplying Service Conscious Customers Coast-to-Coast

General. High-carbon spring steels are the most commonly used of all springs materials. Try to use these materials in preference to others because that are least expensive, readily available, easily worked, and most popular. These materials are not satisfactory for high or low temperatures or for shock or impact loading.

High-Carbon Spring Wire

      
MaterialMusic Wire ASTM A 228Hard Drawn ASTM A 277High Tensile Hard Drawn ASTM A 679Oil Tempered ASTM A 229Carbon Valve ASTM A 230
Nominal AnalysisC--.70 - 1.00% Mn--.20 - 60%C--.45 - .85% Mn--.60 - 1.30%C-- .65 - 1.00% Mn-- .20 - 1.30%C-- .55 - .85% Mn-- .60 - 1.20%C-- .60 - .75% Mn-- .60 - .90%
Minimum Tensile Strength230-3999CLI 147-283 CLII 171-324238-350CLI 165-293 CLII 191-324215-240
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 1063030303030
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile4540454545
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 10611.511.511.511.511.5
Maximum Temp. °F250250250250250
Maximum Temp. °C121121121121121
Rockwell HardnessC41-60C31-52C41-60C42-55C45-49
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special PropertiesCold drawn. High and uniform tensile. High quality springs and wire forms.Cold drawn. Average stress applications. Lower cost springs and wire forms.Cold drawn. Higher quality springs and wire forms.Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication, General purpose spring wire.Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Suitable for cyclic applications.

General. The alloy spring steels have a definite place in the field of spring materials, particularly for conditions involving high stress and for applications where shock or impact loading occurs. Alloy spring steels also can withstand higher and lower temperatures than the high-carbon steels and are obtainable in either the annealed or pre tempered conditions. Note: These materials are not regularly stocked in a wide variety of sizes.

General. The use of stainless spring steels has increased considerably in recent years. Several new compositions are now available to withstand corrosion. All of these materials can be used for high temperatures up to 650°F.

Alloy Steel Wire

   
MaterialChrome Vanadium ASTM A 231Chrome Silicon ASTM A 401
Nominal AnalysisC -- .48 - .53% Cr -- .80 - 1.10% V -- .15 min%C -- .51 - .59% Cr -- .60 - .80% Si -- 1.20 - 1.60%
Minimum Tensile Strength190-300235-300
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 1063030
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile4545
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 10611.511.5
Maximum Temp. °F425475
Maximum Temp. °C218.5246
Rockwell HardnessC41-55C48-55
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special PropertiesCold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature.Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature.

 

Stainless Steel Wire

    
MaterialAISI 302/304 ASTM A 313AISI 316 ASTM A 31317-7 PH ASTM A 313 (631)
Nominal AnalysisCr -- 17.0 - 19.0% Ni -- 8.0 - 10.0%Cr -- 16.0 - 18.0% Ni -- 10.0 - 14.0% Mo -- 2.0 - 3.0%Cr -- 16.0 - 18.0% Ni -- 6.5 - 7.5% Al -- .75 - 1.5%
Minimum Tensile Strength235-300110-245Cond CH 235-335
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106282829.5
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile30-404045
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 10611.511.511.5
Maximum Temp. °F550550650
Maximum Temp. °C288288343
Rockwell HardnessC35-45C35-45C38-57
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special PropertiesCold drawn, general purpose, corrosion and heat resistant. Magnetic in spring temper.Cold drawn. Heat resistant and better corrosion resistance than 302. Magnetic in spring temper.Cold drawn & precipitation hardened after fabrication. High strength and general purpose corrosion resistance. Slightly magnetic in spring temper.

 

General. Copper-base alloys are important spring materials becaus of thier good electrical properties combined with their excellent resistance to corrosion. Although these materials are more expensive than the high-carbon and the alloy steels, they nevertheless are frequently used in electrical components and in subzero temperatures.

All copper-base alloys are drawn to the American wire gage (same as Brown and Sharpe gage) and are nonmagnetic.

Non-Ferrous Alloy Wire

     
MaterialPhosphor Bronze Grade A ASTM B 159Beryllium Copper ASTM B 197Monel 400 AMS 7233Monel K 500 QQ-N-286
Nominal AnalysisCu -- 94.0% - 96.0% Sn -- 4.0 - 6.0%Cu -- 98.0% Be -- 2.0%Ni -- 66.0% Cu -- 31.5% C/FeNi -- 65.0% Cu -- 29.5% C/Fe/A/Ti
Minimum Tensile Strength105-145150-230145-180160-200
Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 1061518.52628
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile40454040
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 1066.257.09.59.5
Maximum Temp. °F200400450550
Maximum Temp. °C93.8204232288
Rockwell HardnessB98-104C35-42C23-32C23-35
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special PropertiesCold drawn. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity.Cold drawn and may be mill hardened before fabricataion. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. High physicals.Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.Excellent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

General. Nickel-based alloys are especially useful spring materials to combat corrosion and to withstand both elevated and below-zero temperature application. Their nonmagnetic characteristic is important for such devices as gyroscopes,chronoscopes, and indicating instruments. These materials have high electrical resistance and should not be used for conductors of electrical current.

High-Temperature Alloy Wire

     
MaterialA 286 AlloyInconel 600 QQ-W-390Inconel 718Inconel X-750 AMS 5698, 5699
Nominal AnalysisNi -- 26.0% Cr -- 15.0% Fe -- 53.0%Ni -- 76.0% Cr -- 15.8% Fe -- 7.2%Ni -- 52.5% Cr -- 18.6% Fe -- 18.5%Inconel X-750 AMS 5698,5699
Minimum

Tensile Strength
160-200170-230210-2500No.IT 155 min.
Spg.T 190-230
Modulus psi x 10629312931
Design Stress % Minimum Tensile35404040
Modulus in Torsion G psi x 10610.411.011.212
Maximum Temp. °F9507001100750-1100
Maximum Temp. °C510371593399-593
Rockwell HardnessC35-42C35-45C45-50C34-39
Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special PropertiesCold drawn and precipitation hardened after fabrication. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.Cold drawn and precipitation hardened after fabrication. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.Cold drawn and precipitation hardened after fabrication. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.

Flat High-Carbon Spring Steels

Although these materials are frequently plated, sections under 0.015″ having carbon content over 0.85 with hardness over Rockwell C47 are highly susceptible to hydrogen-embrittlement even though special plating and beating operations are employed. (Properties are not displayed).

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