High Quality Spring Wire Materials
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General. High-carbon spring steels are the most commonly used of all springs materials. Try to use these materials in preference to others because that are least expensive, readily available, easily worked, and most popular. These materials are not satisfactory for high or low temperatures or for shock or impact loading.
High-Carbon Spring Wire
|Material||Music Wire ASTM A 228||Hard Drawn ASTM A 277||High Tensile Hard Drawn ASTM A 679||Oil Tempered ASTM A 229||Carbon Valve ASTM A 230|
|Nominal Analysis||C--.70 - 1.00% Mn--.20 - 60%||C--.45 - .85% Mn--.60 - 1.30%||C-- .65 - 1.00% Mn-- .20 - 1.30%||C-- .55 - .85% Mn-- .60 - 1.20%||C-- .60 - .75% Mn-- .60 - .90%|
|Minimum Tensile Strength||230-3999||CLI 147-283 CLII 171-324||238-350||CLI 165-293 CLII 191-324||215-240|
|Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106||30||30||30||30||30|
|Design Stress % Minimum Tensile||45||40||45||45||45|
|Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106||11.5||11.5||11.5||11.5||11.5|
|Maximum Temp. °F||250||250||250||250||250|
|Maximum Temp. °C||121||121||121||121||121|
|Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties||Cold drawn. High and uniform tensile. High quality springs and wire forms.||Cold drawn. Average stress applications. Lower cost springs and wire forms.||Cold drawn. Higher quality springs and wire forms.||Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication, General purpose spring wire.||Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Suitable for cyclic applications.|
General. The alloy spring steels have a definite place in the field of spring materials, particularly for conditions involving high stress and for applications where shock or impact loading occurs. Alloy spring steels also can withstand higher and lower temperatures than the high-carbon steels and are obtainable in either the annealed or pre tempered conditions. Note: These materials are not regularly stocked in a wide variety of sizes.
General. The use of stainless spring steels has increased considerably in recent years. Several new compositions are now available to withstand corrosion. All of these materials can be used for high temperatures up to 650°F.
Alloy Steel Wire
|Material||Chrome Vanadium ASTM A 231||Chrome Silicon ASTM A 401|
|Nominal Analysis||C -- .48 - .53% Cr -- .80 - 1.10% V -- .15 min%||C -- .51 - .59% Cr -- .60 - .80% Si -- 1.20 - 1.60%|
|Minimum Tensile Strength||190-300||235-300|
|Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106||30||30|
|Design Stress % Minimum Tensile||45||45|
|Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106||11.5||11.5|
|Maximum Temp. °F||425||475|
|Maximum Temp. °C||218.5||246|
|Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties||Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature.||Cold drawn and heat treated before fabrication. Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature.|
Stainless Steel Wire
|Material||AISI 302/304 ASTM A 313||AISI 316 ASTM A 313||17-7 PH ASTM A 313 (631)|
|Nominal Analysis||Cr -- 17.0 - 19.0% Ni -- 8.0 - 10.0%||Cr -- 16.0 - 18.0% Ni -- 10.0 - 14.0% Mo -- 2.0 - 3.0%||Cr -- 16.0 - 18.0% Ni -- 6.5 - 7.5% Al -- .75 - 1.5%|
|Minimum Tensile Strength||235-300||110-245||Cond CH 235-335|
|Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106||28||28||29.5|
|Design Stress % Minimum Tensile||30-40||40||45|
|Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106||11.5||11.5||11.5|
|Maximum Temp. °F||550||550||650|
|Maximum Temp. °C||288||288||343|
|Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties||Cold drawn, general purpose, corrosion and heat resistant. Magnetic in spring temper.||Cold drawn. Heat resistant and better corrosion resistance than 302. Magnetic in spring temper.||Cold drawn & precipitation hardened after fabrication. High strength and general purpose corrosion resistance. Slightly magnetic in spring temper.|
General. Copper-base alloys are important spring materials becaus of thier good electrical properties combined with their excellent resistance to corrosion. Although these materials are more expensive than the high-carbon and the alloy steels, they nevertheless are frequently used in electrical components and in subzero temperatures.
All copper-base alloys are drawn to the American wire gage (same as Brown and Sharpe gage) and are nonmagnetic.
Non-Ferrous Alloy Wire
|Material||Phosphor Bronze Grade A ASTM B 159||Beryllium Copper ASTM B 197||Monel 400 AMS 7233||Monel K 500 QQ-N-286|
|Nominal Analysis||Cu -- 94.0% - 96.0% Sn -- 4.0 - 6.0%||Cu -- 98.0% Be -- 2.0%||Ni -- 66.0% Cu -- 31.5% C/Fe||Ni -- 65.0% Cu -- 29.5% C/Fe/A/Ti|
|Minimum Tensile Strength||105-145||150-230||145-180||160-200|
|Modulus of Elasticity E psi x 106||15||18.5||26||28|
|Design Stress % Minimum Tensile||40||45||40||40|
|Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106||6.25||7.0||9.5||9.5|
|Maximum Temp. °F||200||400||450||550|
|Maximum Temp. °C||93.8||204||232||288|
|Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties||Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity.||Cold drawn and may be mill hardened before fabricataion. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. High physicals.||Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.||Excellent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.|
General. Nickel-based alloys are especially useful spring materials to combat corrosion and to withstand both elevated and below-zero temperature application. Their nonmagnetic characteristic is important for such devices as gyroscopes,chronoscopes, and indicating instruments. These materials have high electrical resistance and should not be used for conductors of electrical current.
High-Temperature Alloy Wire
|Material||A 286 Alloy||Inconel 600 QQ-W-390||Inconel 718||Inconel X-750 AMS 5698, 5699|
|Nominal Analysis||Ni -- 26.0% Cr -- 15.0% Fe -- 53.0%||Ni -- 76.0% Cr -- 15.8% Fe -- 7.2%||Ni -- 52.5% Cr -- 18.6% Fe -- 18.5%||Inconel X-750 AMS 5698,5699|
|160-200||170-230||210-2500||No.IT 155 min.
|Modulus psi x 106||29||31||29||31|
|Design Stress % Minimum Tensile||35||40||40||40|
|Modulus in Torsion G psi x 106||10.4||11.0||11.2||12|
|Maximum Temp. °F||950||700||1100||750-1100|
|Maximum Temp. °C||510||371||593||399-593|
|Method of Manufacture Chief Uses Special Properties||Cold drawn and precipitation hardened after fabrication. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.||Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.||Cold drawn and precipitation hardened after fabrication. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.||Cold drawn and precipitation hardened after fabrication. Good corrosion resistance at elevated temperature.|
Flat High-Carbon Spring Steels
Although these materials are frequently plated, sections under 0.015″ having carbon content over 0.85 with hardness over Rockwell C47 are highly susceptible to hydrogen-embrittlement even though special plating and beating operations are employed. (Properties are not displayed).